Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, DSM-IV): RITALIN® LA is indicated for the treatment of ADHD in children 6 years of age and older and in adults.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), or ADHD (Attention Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder), was previously known as <attention deficit disorder> or <minimal brain dysfunction>. Other terms used to describe this behavior disorder are: hyperkinetic syndrome, minimal brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, minor brain dysfunction and patients’ psychoorganic syndrome. RITALIN® LA is indicated as part of a comprehensive program that includes psychological, pedagogical and social measures to stabilize patients who present with a behavior disorder syndrome characterized by moderate to severe distraction, short attention periods, hyperactivity, instability emotional, and impulsivity. The diagnosis must be made according to the criteria of the DSM-IV or the ICD-10 guidelines. Neurological signs may occur (mild not localized, learning problems and abnormal EEG); but they also may not appear, and the diagnosis of CNS dysfunction may or may not be necessary.
Special considerations for the diagnosis of ADHD in children: The specific etiology of this syndrome is unknown and there is no diagnostic test. To diagnose it correctly it is necessary to carry out a multidisciplinary analysis in which the medical, neuropsychological, pedagogical and social parts are included. The most common characteristics of the disorder are: a history of brief attention periods, distractibility, emotional instability, impulsivity, moderate or severe hyperactivity, mild neurological signs and an abnormal EEG. In some cases learning difficulties may occur. The diagnosis should be based on the history and complete evaluation of the child and not only on the presence of one or more of these characteristics. Not all children with this syndrome need drug treatment. Stimulants are not indicated in children with symptoms induced by external factors (particularly abuse) and / or primary psychiatric disorders, including psychosis. It is essential to treat these cases in an appropriate pedagogical environment, and psychosocial intervention is usually necessary. When these measures are insufficient, the decision to prescribe a stimulant will depend on the meticulous evaluation of the severity of the symptoms presented by the child.